Does anybody have any historical article or reference about the juggling technique we now call multiplex ?
Personally, my big reference about this topic is Sergeï Ignatov, the first I saw on TV when I started juggling, who threw several clubs at a time in a juggling pattern. Then, several jugglers and former students of CNAC extensively used this technique with clubs in the 1980-1990s. I can also think of the Gatto Multiplex within a 5 or 7 ball cascade.
Only starting a pattern by throwing several props at a time, then not using multiplex within the pattern, also counts in my opinion as a multiplex (i.e Kris Kremo with 3 balls), although I don’t think it expresses the same level of integration.
My intuition is that this technique could be a marker to help defining certain juggling historical periods : holding more than one prop in the same hand is / is not called juggling according to context.
Any other thoughts or info to share ?
Chinko performed a ten ball multiplex as early as 1904 and an 8 ball multiplex before that.
Other jugglers did multiplex back then as well. Charles Carrer was very good at an eight ball multiplex.
Thank you David for these great references.
Still I have the impression that this technique has been used a lot more in what I would call contemporary juggling (post-90s french) but is it just an effect of my point of view ?
i don´t think one should use multiplexes as a marker in juggling history as it falls together with the exploration of many other techniques like flats, slow singles, contact with non spheric objects, the rise of flow arts… most of which have been known and juggled before I believe the historic marker is not the single technique itself but the trend to research and develop non traditional toss juggling, an enviroment were developing new tricks was valued higher than practising known ones, and likely a increase in the number of jugglers in generel which lead to more techniques beeing researched deeper. Also to me the multiplex technique doesn´t significantly chance the concept or juggling. with toss juggling you throw multiple things up, catch them again and repeat, with multiplexes you are doing the exact same thing so in comparision with other techniques that were developed around that time and knowing the skill itself is not “new” i wouldn´t value multiplexes as significant in juggling history
The earliest reference of multiplex that I can recall, is WC fields being very irritated at a midget for being able to juggle 8 balls in pairs. This could be pre 1900. There are also references to Cinquevalli doing multiplexes with balls, in the IJA newsletter I think is the source of that. So multiplex seems to be as old of a concept as that of ”juggling” being something you do with objects (rather than singing or storytelling for an example) as this was established in the late 1800s.
I think a bigger historical marker would be that of broken down juggling. i.e. Patterns with throws that are made by choice and not forced by an incoming object. As far as I have understood, the first to do a routine like that would be Didier Andre, but perhaps you know more about this than I do Denis?
“broken down” might actually be a more appropriate term for what I’m trying to categorize, which implies a lot of multiplexing even within 3 ball juggling. I’m thinking of the Jay Gilligan TedX which talked about this.
I’m not sure who the first could be, only the first thing I can remember was Tim Roberts talk about his work with his student Jörg Müller with clubs around pattern ([24x],2)(4,2)% – but at the time they didn’t use siteswap – naming it seriously or not “the future of juggling”, probably around 1990-1991. Like a sort of “reference to the cascade” instead of just “the cascade”. Then you have much more time to include movement, body tricks and manipuation than during a normal cascade. It’s possible Didier André worked on this a short time before,
Thanks everybody for your interesting contributions.
I assume you mean ([24x],2)(4,2)*
I would agree that is a very significant and well used pattern of the Broken Down family. Love the name “the future of juggling”, I will definitely call it that from now on! I had no idea it was around so early, but it does not surprise me and neither does the people who did it!
% and * are two different things to me as in old Prechac articles but that’s another topic
Please educate me, since I have never seen the % in use. What is the difference between * and %?
one of my references is here, sorry it’s in French and very old
” % ” means “now do the same thing but with swapped left and right” in other words “on the other side”
” * ” means “hurry” which means “throw the prop again straight away without dwell time”
in certain cases in could be equivalent but honestly I have never dug into this question enough.
I just find that the sign % represents the idea of swapping sides better than * .
Using the * for “mirror pattern” seems to be the norm, at least in the English speaking juggling world.
I googled “synchronous siteswap explained” and the first 4 pages that show up all mention an asterix (*).
According to Jugglewiki and the Jugglelab manual the asterix was introduced by Ben Beever:
(chapter: Symmetric Patterns)I have certainly not seen the % symbol before and know that all my friends use the *. Although possibly confusing, hurry notation with a * and mirror notation with a * could probably coexist, I glanced over the link you gave and the asterixes are only added after single throws, never after a closing round bracket ).
Sorry for not contributing to the multiplex discussion /offtopic
a frenchie like me hails Prechac only !